INDEX of Theme Pages:
Sat. Evening Post
|The Evolution of Magazines|
periodical, a publication that is issued regularly. It is distinguished from the newspaper in format in that its pages are smaller and are usually bound, and it is published at weekly, monthly, quarterly, or other intervals, rather than daily. Periodicals range from technical and scholarly journals to illustrated magazines for mass circulation.
The French Journal des scavans (1665-1792), edited by Sieur de Hedouville (Denis de Sallo), is considered to have been the first periodical. A literary, scientific, and art weekly, it was widely imitated in Europe. German periodicals began late in the 18th cent. as information magazines in dialogue form, later evolving into literary and scientific journals.
Bradford, Andrew, 1686‚1742, colonial printer of Pennsylvania, b. Philadelphia; son of William Bradford (1663‚1752). Andrew learned the trade in his father's shop in New York City and in 1712 went to Philadelphia, where he established his own press and became a bookseller. In 1719 he began publication of the American Weekly Mercury, the first newspaper in Pennsylvania and the third in the colonies. He was imprisoned for publishing political criticism but defended his own case for freedom of the press, establishing a precedent for the defense of John Peter Zenger. In 1741 he began publication of the short-lived (three issues) American Magazine, the first colonial magazine.
Zenger, John Peter Pronounced As: zengr , 1697-1746, American journalist, b. Germany. He emigrated to America in 1710 and was trained as a printer by William Bradford (1663-1752). Zenger began publication of the New York Weekly Journal in 1733, an opposition paper to Bradford's New York Gazette and to the policies of Gov. William Cosby. Zenger's newspaper, backed by several prominent lawyers and merchants, truculently attacked the administration. Although most of the articles were written by Zenger's backers, Zenger was legally responsible and was arrested on libel charges and imprisoned (1734). In the celebrated trial that followed (1735) Zenger was defended by Andrew Hamilton, who established truth as a defense in cases of libel. The trial, which resulted in the publisher's acquittal, helped to establish freedom of the press in America. Zenger later became public printer for the colonies of New York (1737) and New Jersey (1738).
Hamilton, Andrew, 1676?-1741, colonial American lawyer, defender of John Peter Zenger, b. Scotland. He practiced law in Maryland and then Pennsylvania, where he became (1717) attorney general and held other offices. When the governing party in New York had disbarred all local lawyers who ventured to defend Zenger, Hamilton was brought in and by his brilliant defense secured Zenger's acquittal (1735), establishing truth as a defense against libel charges.
Thomas, Isaiah, 1749-1831, American patriot and printer, from Worcester, Mass. Thomas printed outspoken Whig editorials in the Massachusetts Spy, a newspaper that he helped to found. He fought at the battles of Lexington and Concord and after the Revolution settled in Worcester as a printer. He published in 1783 A Specimen of Isaiah Thomas's Printing Types, valued as evidence of the printing equipment of a leading American printer of the time. His other ventures included the Massachusetts Magazine (1789-95) and a folio Bible (1791). In 1810 he published the History of Printing in America, compiling during his research one of the most important collections of early American newspapers and pamphlets. He also founded and endowed the American Antiquarian Society of Worcester.